Our analysis will help to determine if social economy represents an organizational model that can be a source of job satisfaction, and if so, to identify factors that explain this positive impact in order to encourage their development in all work organizations. Since the two-factors theory Herzberg, , was developed, two categories of determinants affecting job satisfaction and dissatisfaction have been discerned.
Intrinsic factors correspond to the work activity characteristics while extrinsic factors correspond to the work environment characteristics. The intrinsic factors are the following: occupational accomplishment, recognition, work interest, responsibilities, promotion, task identification, autonomy, work usefulness, task diversity, self-efficacy in work, and skills use. Job satisfaction has important implications for several variables. Job satisfaction is also a significant predictor of the overall level of happiness Argyle, Indeed, it was the most frequently cited determinant.
A high level of job satisfaction is a necessary condition for an optimal state of health, which is characterized by the balance between requirements and contributions of individuals and their environment definition provided by the Canadian Ministry of Health, Improving job satisfaction is therefore a major issue which is highlighted by the fact that, in the current climate of our highly competitive economy, companies seem to require more and more commitment and self-efficacy from employees.
The denial of dissatisfaction and the absence of solutions in such a context may lead both to counter-productivity and suffering. Public authorities seem to be more and more aware of the problem, as demonstrated by the fact that increasing job satisfaction is the first in a series of objectives adopted by EU leaders at the Lisbon and Laeken summits in order to increase the quality of life at work.
In this country, social economy includes associations, mutual insurance companies, and cooperatives.
They differ from the two other types of organizations because voluntary members in associations usually outnumber wage-earning members. The economic dimension of the activity is often lower than in mutual insurance companies and worker-owned cooperatives. Profits cannot moreover be redistributed to members in associations, unlike mutual insurance and worker-owned cooperatives which, while their primary objective is not profit, are not required to comply with the non-distribution constraint.
Mutual insurance companies are in charge of the collective risk management of their insured parties. They differ from private insurance companies in that they are controlled by their members the insured people themselves or their representatives. Most associations and consumer cooperatives do not fit into this category for one of two reasons: first, they do not develop economic activity even though they are considered to be part of the social economy, and second, they do not represent the main work activity of their volunteers and part-time workers.
These types of organizations are therefore not relevant as a field of research on job satisfaction in the social economy sector. In business cooperatives, companies work together but the cooperative status may have a neutral impact on the forms of work organization within each company.
Therefore, only mutual insurance companies, cooperative banks and worker-owned cooperatives can be seen as relevant places for studying the effects of social economy on job satisfaction. However, since their members are first and foremost their clients - and not their employees - mutual insurance companies and cooperative banks can apply social economy practices without significant consequences for their workers.
We therefore decided to select worker-owned cooperatives as the most relevant type of organization in which to study the effects of social economy on job satisfaction. This means that if social economy characteristics have a positive or negative effect on job satisfaction, it is in worker-owned cooperatives that they are most likely to be observed. It also means that the results observed in worker-owned cooperatives should not be unhesitatingly generalized to the whole social economy sector.
As social economy organizations, the aim of worker-owned cooperatives is not only economic growth but also social usefulness, responsibility, and contribution to the socioeconomic development of their community. Economic surpluses are assigned in priority to develop work activity and jobs and not to maximize profits for stockholders.
Cooperatives are owned by their employees who therefore have to make an individual contribution to its capital by becoming associates all workers are not necessarily associates even if all are expected to become so; in some cooperatives, it is compulsory after two years of employment. Based on this vote, equality between members replaces inequality based on hierarchical status. The manager s of the company is are chosen from the associates-workers and elected by them. Rules inside the company are based on collective deliberation and voluntary adhesion more than on submission to an authority.
Finally, information is expected to be shared between all members and not to be only in the hands of the management. Building and intellectual services consulting, engineering are the two main job-creating sectors. On average, Job satisfaction is also assumed to be high for many extrinsic factors in cooperatives: a higher level of shared business culture, increased confidence in elected management, greater attention to working and employment conditions following the increased social responsibility of the company, and collective decision-making.
However, the relation between working in cooperatives and job satisfaction is assumed to be much more complex with regard to several aspects. The perceived pressure may be weak and cause less dissatisfaction because of the large number of resources autonomy, initiatives but the growing responsibilities of the associates-workers also increase the demands of activities.
Similarly, interpersonal relationships may be improved due to greater equality between workers but can also worsen because of role ambiguity e. They were therefore chosen from the same sector: consulting and communication in sustainable development. Consulting and communication companies create the majority of new jobs in intellectual services, with an employment growth of 8. Moreover, a significant proportion of the cooperatives in this activity sector are located in the North of France where the study took place. With this in mind, we made an initial selection among the cooperatives in this economic sector based on two criteria: the size of the company, selecting only companies with 5 or more workers, many of them having less; and its location, that is accessible to the interviewer.
Then selected cooperatives were contacted by e-mail and asked to participate in the study. After having identified a cooperative, we contacted private companies in the same field and of the same size.
Suivez-nous Flux RSS. Comments 2. In one case, this function itself was dissatisfactory: the respondent had a positive attitude toward the function relevance and usefulness but felt uncomfortable doing it. There are many diverse influences on the way that English is used across the world today. Two of the main satisfaction factors in the private company corresponded precisely to the characteristics of worker-owned cooperatives: the prioritization of the meaning and usefulness of the work over profit, autonomy-supportive management, and a high degree of consideration for people. Each year we host several thousand young people from 7 to 18 years of age, in more than 40 different scientific stays.
A private company quite similar to the cooperative, including location and operating range, was selected. It specialized in leading sustainable development projects. There were seven participants from the cooperative, namely five women and two men between 24 and 47 years old, the average being Education varied from vocational diplomas to Ph. None of the employees had worked in a cooperative before joining this one and only a few of them had experience in consulting and communication.
Five of the seven workers were associates; two could become associates as soon as they met the required six months of seniority. Six jobs were full-time and one was part-time. One of the consultants was absent holidays and did not participate in the study. There were five participants from the private company, three women and two men between 27 and 45 years of age, the average being All employees had past experience in their work field, the average being The agency director and the creative director were the shareholders in the company.
All the jobs were full-time.
A difference emerged concerning occupations, since the cooperative was almost exclusively composed of consultants while the private company had various occupational statuses. However, this difference was a direct consequence of the choice of the cooperative not to introduce a hierarchy as in private companies.
The other difference concerned seniority in the company and past professional experience. Difference in seniority and experience levels may lead people to express different aspirations, and therefore different job satisfaction levels, and is likely to have consequences on work organization.
These differences represent important factors that must be considered when examining results.
Other demographic variables did not show sizeable differences between the two selected companies. We were thus able to accurately analyze the explanatory factors of expressed satisfactions and dissatisfactions as well as to identify the role of social economy characteristics. Each interviewee was allowed to mention as many factors as he or she wanted to. Interviews were recorded and then submitted to a thematic content analysis based on the agreement between three examiners. The aim was to identify satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors present in what the participants said as well as the role of the social economy characteristics.
Participants were also asked to give an evaluation of their global level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction on a scale instructions were provided on how to use the scale.
Interviews were conducted with employees based on a voluntary participation. Data collection took place in the two companies in a one-month interval. Interviews were conducted during working days in a quiet environment and in the absence of any other people. Because of unavailability, only six of the seven employees of the cooperative participated in the interviews.
Les belles annes coll bleue french edition. Para em pezar por los entram ados m s. Travail occasionnel french edition. Kjv biblecommandment is a lamp and. Recherchez un emploi dès maintenant parmi toutes nos offres d'emploi en télétravail et décrochez la job dont vous avez besoin.
For these employees, cohesion meant a high degree of perceived proximity between the workers and a high level of convergence in goals and values. The cohesion of the work team was not, according to the participants, a consequence of collegiality but rather a consequence of age proximity and common experience between workers. The relation between cohesion and collegiality is discussed in the last part of this paper. A list of the ways a staff member may be employed in this organization. Merci d'avance pour votre aide.
Bernard M KudoZ activity Questions: 21 none open 1 without valid answers 1 closed without grading Answers: France. Local time: French translation: jours de travail occasionnel. Explanation: travail sur one base occasionnelle - c'est du moins ce que je comprends d'apres le contexte.
Selected response from: emmanuelle groom United Kingdom Local time: Loubna Benkirane. Victoria Britten France. Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer neutral. Victoria Britten : It features in a list where all the other items are reasons for absence Login to enter a peer comment or grade.
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