King Hwuy of Leang & The Life and Teaching of Confucius

The Great Events by Famous Historians/Volume 1/Rise of Confucius, the Chinese Sage
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The pace of missionary activity increased considerably after the First Opium War in Christian missionaries and their schools, under the protection of the Western powers, went on to play a major role in the Westernization of China in the 19th and 20th centuries. Liang Fa "Leung Faat" in Cantonese worked in a printing company in Guangzhou in and came to know Robert Morrison, who translated the Bible to Chinese and needed printing of the translation. When William Milne arrived at Guangzhou in and worked with Morrison on translation of the Bible, he also came to know Liang, whom he baptized in In , Liang was ordained by Morrison, thus becoming a missionary of the London Missionary Society and the first Chinese Protestant minister and evangelist.

King Hwuy Of Leang (from The Works Of Mencius) & The Great Learning

During the s, Western missionaries spread Christianity rapidly through the coastal cities that were open to foreign trade; the bloody Taiping Rebellion was connected in its origins to the influence of some missionaries on the leader Hong Xiuquan , who has since been hailed as a heretic by most Christian groups, but as a proto-communist peasant militant by the Chinese Communist Party.

The Taiping Rebellion was a large-scale revolt against the authority and forces of the Qing government. It was conducted from to by an army and civil administration led by Hong Xiuquan. He established the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace with the capital at Nanjing and attained control of significant parts of southern China, at its height ruling over about 30 million people.

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The theocratic and militaristic regime instituted several social reforms, including strict separation of the sexes, abolition of foot binding , land socialization, suppression of private trade, and the replacement of Confucianism , Buddhism and Chinese folk religion by a form of Christianity, holding that Hong Xiuquan was the younger brother of Jesus Christ. The Taiping rebellion was eventually put down by the Qing army aided by French and British forces.

With an estimated death toll of between 20 and 30 million due to warfare and resulting starvation, this civil war ranks among history's deadliest conflicts. Mao Zedong viewed the Taiping as early heroic revolutionaries against a corrupt feudal system. Christians in China established clinics and hospitals , [34] and provided training for nurses.

Both Roman Catholics and Protestants founded numerous educational institutions in China from the primary to the university level. Some of the most prominent Chinese universities began as religious-founded institutions. Missionaries worked to abolish practices such as foot binding , [35] and the unjust treatment of maidservants, as well as launching charitable work and distributing food to the poor. They also opposed the opium trade [36] and brought treatment to many who were addicted. Some of the early leaders of the Chinese Republic , such as Sun Yat-sen were converts to Christianity and were influenced by its teachings.

By the early s the Taiping movement was almost extinct, Protestant missions at the time were confined to five coastal cities.

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By the end of the century, however, the picture had vastly changed. Scores of new missionary societies had been organized, and several thousand missionaries were working in all parts of China. This transformation can be traced to the Unequal Treaties which forced the Chinese government to admit Western missionaries into the interior of the country, the excitement caused by the awakening of faith in Britain and the example of J. Hudson Taylor — Taylor Plymouth Brethren arrived in China in Historian Kenneth Scott Latourette wrote that Hudson Taylor was "one of the greatest missionaries of all time, and The China Inland Mission was the largest mission agency in China and it is estimated that Taylor was responsible for more people being converted to Christianity than at any other time since Paul the Apostle brought Christian teaching to Europe.

Out of the 8, Protestant missionaries that were at one time at work in China, of them were from the China Inland Mission. In imperial-times Chinese social and religious culture there were charitable organizations for virtually every social service: burial of the dead, care of orphans, provision of food for the hungry.

The wealthiest in every community—typically, the merchants—were expected to give food, medicine, clothing, and even cash to those in need.

Basic Teachings of Confucianism

According to Caroline Reeves, a historian at Emmanuel College in Boston, that began to change with the arrival of American missionaries in the late 19th century. One of the reasons they gave for being there was to help the poor Chinese. By when the China Inland Mission began, there were already thirty different Protestant groups at work in China, [38] however the diversity of denominations represented did not equate to more missionaries on the field. In the seven provinces in which Protestant missionaries had already been working, there were an estimated million people with only 91 workers, while there were eleven other provinces in inland China with a population estimated at million, for whom absolutely nothing had been attempted.

In addition to the publication and distribution of Christian literature and Bibles , the Protestant missionary movement in China furthered the dispersion of knowledge with other printed works of history and science. As the missionaries went to work among the Chinese, they established and developed schools and introduced medical techniques from the West.

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It concluded with repeated calls for their extermination by vigilantes and the government. The Boxer Uprising was in part a reaction against Christianity in China. Christianity was prevalent among bandits in Shandong. In , the Manchu Yuxian , a magistrate in the province, acquired the help of the Big Swords Society in fighting against bandits. The Big Swords practiced heterodox practices, however, they were not bandits and were not seen as bandits by Chinese authorities. The Big Swords relentlessly crushed the bandits, but the bandits converted to the Catholic Church, because it made them legally immune to prosecution under the protection of the foreigners.

The Big Swords proceeded to attack the bandit Catholic churches and burn them. More secret societies started emerging after this. In Pingyuan, the site of another insurrection and major religious disputes, the county magistrate noted that Chinese converts to Christianity were taking advantage of their bishop's power to file false lawsuits which, upon investigation, were found groundless. Many scholars see the historical period between the Boxer Uprising and the Second Sino-Japanese War as a golden age of Chinese Christianity, as converts grew rapidly and churches were built in many regions of China.

In the s, a group of church leaders formed the National Christian Council to coordinate interdenominational activity. Among the leaders were Cheng Jingyi , who was influential at the Glasgow Conference with his call for a non-denominational church.

The way was prepared for the creation of the Church of Christ in China , a unified non-denominational church. Although some of the movement's leaders, such as Chen Duxiu , initially expressed admiration for the role that Christianity played in building the strong nations of the West, as well as approving the emphasis on love and social service, Christianity became identified in the eyes of many young Chinese with foreign control of China.

The Anti-Christian Movement attacked missionaries and their followers on the grounds that no religion was scientific and that the Christian church in China was a tool of the foreigners. Such Chinese Protestants as the liberals David Z. Chao , and the theologically more conservative Chen Chonggui responded by developing social programs and theologies that devoted themselves to strengthening the Chinese nation. James Yen , a graduate of Yale University, led a program of village reform.

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Leading writers include Lin Yutang , who renounced his Christianity for several decades. Indigenous Christian evangelism started in China in the late s.

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Wan and Sun graduated from secondary school together in Lottie Moon , representing the Southern Baptist, was the most prominent woman missionary. Although an equality-oriented feminist who rejected male dominance, the Southern Baptists have memorialized her as a southern belle who followed traditional gender roles. In this period the Chinese Christian churches and organizations had their first experience with autonomy from the Western structures of the missionary church organizations. Some scholars suggest this helped lay the foundation for the independent denominations and churches of the post-war period and the eventual development of the Three-Self Church and the Patriotic Catholic Church.

At the same time the intense war period hampered the rebuilding and development of the churches. The People's Republic of China was established on the mainland country in October by the Communist Party of China led by Mao Zedong , while the Republic of China led by the Kuomintang maintained its government on the insular land of Taiwan. Under Communist ideology, religion was discouraged by the state and Christian missionaries left the country in what was described by Phyllis Thompson of the China Inland Mission as a "reluctant exodus", leaving the indigenous churches to do their own administration, support, and propagation of the faith.

The Chinese Protestant church entered the communist era having made significant progress toward self-support and self-government. While the Chinese Communist Party was hostile to religion in general, it did not seek to systematically destroy religion as long as the religious organizations were willing to submit to the direction of the Chinese state.

Many Protestants were willing to accept such accommodation and were permitted to continue religious life in China under the name " Three-Self Patriotic Movement ". Catholics, on the other hand, with their allegiance to the Holy See , could not submit to the Chinese state as their Protestant counterparts did, notwithstanding the willingness of the Vatican to compromise in order to remain on Chinese mainland—the papal nuncio in China did not withdraw to Taiwan like other western diplomats. Consequently, the Chinese state organized the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Church that operates without connection to the Vatican, and the Catholics who continued to acknowledge the authority of the Pope were subject to persecution.

Mao Zedong, the communist leader of China banned religion until his death in This forced the Christians to be secretive and go underground to avoid getting executed by the communist government. From to during the Cultural Revolution , the expression of religious life in China was effectively banned, including even the Three-Self Church. Religions in China began to recover after the economic reforms of the s.

Since then, persecution of Christians in China has been sporadic. During the Cultural Revolution believers were arrested and imprisoned and sometimes tortured for their faith.

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However, government implementation of restrictions since then has varied widely between regions of China and in many areas there is greater religious liberty. The members of the underground Roman Catholic Church in China, those who do not belong to the official Chinese Patriotic Catholic Church and are faithful to the Vatican and the Pope , remain theoretically subject to persecution today. In practice, however, the Vatican and the Chinese State have been, at least unofficially, accommodating each other for some time.

While some bishops who joined the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Church in its early years have been condemned and even excommunicated, the entire organization has never been declared schismatic by the Vatican and, at present, its bishops are even invited to church synods like other Catholic leaders.