Depressive disorder is a mood disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels and behaves.
Signs and symptoms of depression can range from hopelessness and fatigue, to a loss of interest in life, physical pain, and even suicidal thoughts. The DSM-5 definition of depression states that should a person present with these symptoms for a period of two weeks, the individual is experiencing a depressive episode. There are many different types of depression, some of which are caused by events in your life, and others by chemical changes in the brain.
Depression can be thought of as an umbrella term for a variety of disorders, some of which are caused by certain life events or situations, and others by chemical changes in the brain. Gaining a deeper understanding of the different types of depression can help to begin the journey to diagnosis and recovery. Taking some time to consider the root of where your depression comes from will assist you greatly when you feel ready to talk to a doctor or other mental health professional about depressive disorder.
Remember, it is vital that you seek help from a doctor to get an accurate depression diagnosis and receive the treatment and support you need. Major depressive disorder , also known as unipolar or clinical depression, is characterized by a persistent feeling of sadness or a lack of interest in outside stimuli. You might have this type of depression if you have five or more of the following symptoms on most days for 2 weeks of longer.
At least one of the symptoms must be a depressed mood or loss of interest in activities. Dysthymia , also known as persistent depressive disorder, is a long-term form of depression that lasts for years and can interfere with daily life, work, and relationships. People with dysthymia often find it difficult to be happy even on typically joyous occasions. They may be perceived as gloomy, pessimistic, or a complainer, when in reality they are dealing with a chronic mental illness. Bipolar disorder, sometimes referred to as manic depression , is a mental health condition that causes extreme fluctuations in mood and changes in energy, thinking, behavior, and sleep.
These extreme mood swings can occur more frequently—such as every week—or show up sporadically—maybe just twice a year. Mood stabilizers, such as lithium, can be used to control the mood swings that come with bipolar disorder, but individuals are also prescribed a variety of different medications including antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics.
This type of sadness is often attributed to the dramatic hormonal changes that follow childbirth. Around one in seven women will experience something more extreme than the typical baby blues. However, women that give birth and struggle with sadness, anxiety or worry for several weeks or more may have postpartum depression PPD.
Signs and symptoms of PPD include:. Seasonal affective disorder SAD is a type of depression related to the change of season. Different modalities have been shown to be beneficial. Empirically-based treatments, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy , have been researched to show that through the proper course of treatment, symptoms can dissipate over time. In addition to individual psychotherapy, both group psychotherapy and self-help, or support groups , can be an effective line of treatment for dysthymia as well.
The first line of pharmacotherapy is usually SSRIs due to their purported more tolerable nature and reduced side effects compared to the irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants. It often takes an average of 6—8 weeks before the patient begins to feel these medications' therapeutic effects. They also found that MAOIs have a slight advantage over the use of other medication in treating this disorder. Tentative evidence supports the use of amisulpride to treat dysthymia but with increased side effects.
A combination of antidepressant medication and psychotherapy has consistently been shown to be the most effective line of treatment for people diagnosed with dysthymia. This combination is often the preferred method of treatment for those who have dysthymia. This small effect is true only for SSRIs, with TCAs and other pharmacologic treatments showing no differences from psychological treatments. Additionally, there have been several studies yielding results that indicate that severe depression responds more favorably to psychotherapy than pharmacotherapy.
Because of dysthymia's chronic nature, treatment resistance is somewhat common. Such treatment augmentations can include lithium pharmacology , thyroid hormone augmentation, amisulpride , buspirone , bupropion , stimulants , and mirtazapine. Additionally, if the person also suffers from seasonal affective disorder , light therapy can be useful in helping augment therapeutic effects. However, in primary care settings the rate is higher ranging from 5 to 15 percent. United States prevalence rates tend to be somewhat higher than rates in other countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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They can affect anyone, regardless of age, ethnicity or economic background. Sometimes people may use alcohol or drugs to help cover up or mask symptoms of a mood disorder. If a person has intense sadness or hopelessness because of depression, a drug may help him or her feel happy or hopeful for a period of time.
Knowing the symptoms of mood disorders can help you decide to seek help. Only a health care professional can diagnose and treat a mood disorder. If you or someone you know has thoughts of death or suicide, contact a medical professional, clergy member, loved one, friend or crisis line such as TALK immediately, or go to your nearest hospital emergency room.
When neither illness is treated, one illness can make the other worse. When only one illness is treated, treatment is less likely to be effective. When both illnesses are treated, the chances for a full and lasting recovery are greatly improved, and it is easier to return to a full and productive life. Why is it important to stay clean and sober when getting treatment? Mixing alcohol or drugs with medication can have serious and dangerous effects.
Many medications, including over-the-counter medications, interact with alcohol or drugs in harmful ways. It is also unlikely that you will benefit from talk therapy if you are under the influence.
You may need to go to more than one doctor and attend more than one support group. All of your treatment providers should be aware that you have a dual diagnosis. Treatment for your mood disorder may include counseling or psychotherapy, medication and DBSA support groups where you can share your experience living with depression or bipolar disorder. If you are drinking or using every day, you and your doctor may decide that you need to check into a hospital or treatment center so you can be treated for physical withdrawal symptoms.
After treating the withdrawal, you will need to treat the addiction. In these groups, you will learn how others stopped drinking or using, how to cope with cravings and urges to drink or use, and how to live comfortably without the use of alcohol or drugs. You may get therapy from a psychiatrist, a psychologist, a social worker, a therapist, a counselor, a nurse or another health professional.
Medication to help with symptoms of depression and mania may be prescribed by a physician or psychiatrist. You and your doctor will work together to find the right medication s for you. Different people have different responses to medication, and many people need to try several before they find the best one s. Though it may not be easy, be patient when starting new medications and wait for them to work.
Some can take four to eight weeks before you feel their full effects. Keep your own records of treatment—how you feel each day, what medications and dosages you take and how they affect you, and any alcohol or drug use. Medications that affect the brain may also affect other systems of the body, and cause side effects such as dry mouth, constipation, sleepiness, blurred vision, weight gain, weight loss, dizziness or sexual problems. You might feel the side effects before you feel the helpful effects of your medication.
Many times, these side effects will go away in a few weeks. There are ways to reduce or get rid of them.